Alternative Currency System Secret Of Who Created Bitcoin Is Of Great Concern Truthers Want To Know Is Bitcoin A NWO Operation?

The bitcoin logo
The bitcoin logo (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Alternative Currencies is something I have been interested in for awhile now that I have been enlightened about the Federal Reserve system and the IMF or International Monetary Fund run by private corporations who want to run the world and control the New World Order.  I’m working on putting together a page or categories for the best source for Alternative currency‘s or systems of Trade and Barter.  AntiNWOParty is also trying to through our hat in the ring at some point.  We are trying to create our own currency and Trade system for our community.  The Question I and I’m sure many other Truthers want to know is Bitcoin a NWO operation?   Bitcoin is an experimental new digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is also the name of the open source software which enables the use of this currency. The software is a community-driven open source project, released under the MIT license.  Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonymous person or group of people who designed and created the original Bitcoin software, currently known as Bitcoin-Qt.  His involvement in the original Bitcoin software does not appear to extend past mid-2010.
A global currency the exact thing the New World Orders  “end game”.  Despite what we see here about Mr. Nakamoto’s views on central banking (https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Satoshi_Nakamoto), what if he (it?) is really using bitcoin as a test bed for a global currency? With global concerns of hyper-inflation and currency wars, it makes sense to me for something like bitcoin to become successful. What if talk of the “Sheeple” getting “chipped” just means their Bitcoin private addresses will be implanted so they can’t be stolen?

 

Max keiser says in an interview that there will only be 21 million bitcoins ever made and says nothing at all about them being divisible, it comes off as him trying to mislead people who know nothing about bitcoins to think these will be a rare item adding to the peoples desire to join in ? How can you have a Hard limit of about 21 million Bitcoins and have a global currency with     world population total number of living humans on Earth. As of today, it is estimated to number 7.073 billion by the United States Census Bureau (USCB).[1] The USCB estimates that the world population exceeded 7 billion on March 12, 2012.[2] According to a separate estimate by the United Nations Population Fund, it reached this milestone on October 31, 2011.[3][4][5] 

 

Peter Van Laer

 

One Bitcoin is divisible down to eight decimal places. There are really 2,099,999,997,690,000 (just over 2 quadrillion) maximum possible atomic units in the bitcoin design.

The value of “1 BTC” represents 100,000,000 of these. In other words, each is divisible by up to 10^8.

As the value of the unit of 1 BTC grows too large to be useful for day to day transactions, people can start dealing in smaller units, such as milli-bitcoins (mBTC) or micro-bitcoins (μBTC).

 

 

This section copied from socialcompare.com

 

Alternative currency is a term that refers to any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems (usually referred to as national or fiat money). Alternative currencies can be created by an individual, corporation, or organization, they can be created by national, state, or local governments, or they can arise naturally as people begin to use a certain commodity as a currency.

 

Mutual credit is a form of alternative currency, and thus any form of lending that does not go through the banking system can be considered a form of alternative currency. When used in combination with or when designed to work in combination with national or multinational fiat currencies they can be referred to as complementary currency. Most complementary currencies are also local currencies and are limited to a certain region.

 

Barters are another type of alternative currency. These are actually exchange systems, which only trade items; thus without the use of any currency whatsoever. Finally, LETS is a special form of barter which trades points for items. One point stands for one man-hour of work.

 

Often there are issues related to paying tax. Some alternative currencies are considered tax-exempt, but most of them are fully taxed as if they were national currency, with the caveat that the tax must be paid in the national currency. The legality and tax-status of alternative currencies varies widely from country to country; some systems in use in some countries would be illegal in others.

 

List of alternative currencies

 

 

The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin

 

 

 

Will The Real Knights Templar Please Stand Up

Gonfanon2
Gonfanon2 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

FOR $1,000,000: SPOT THE FAKE OR DISSOLVED ORGANIZATION
Order/Knights of Malta
Knights Templar
Papal Knights
Knights of Columbus
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre
Swiss Guard
Jesuits
Legion of Christ
Opus Dei
Illuminati
Freemasons

 

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RED ALERT Private Spanish Company Will “Count” 2012 presidential election Votes!

English: Electoral college map for the 2012, 2...

Its an outrage that a foreign company will count the 2012 presidential election.  That right a  Spanish Company Will “Count” American Votes Overseas In November!  If you want to put salt in the wounds the foreign company is owned by NWO card carrying Communist party member George Soros.  This story was Broadcast Sept 11, 2012 on coast to coast am.  Its looking  like a two headed snake is what we have to vote for, once again the NWO has both of their dogs in this fight.  Now that Ron Paul is out of the fight and Gary Johnson of the Libertarian Party is not given a voice on the Main Stream Media stage.

Scytl - smartcard reader
Scytl – smartcard reader (Photo credit: ACC1Ó – Competitivitat per l’empresa)

This same company also is counting votes for many other countries around the world.  Bain alumni, now raising big money as Romney bundlers are also in the electronic voting machine business. This appears to be a repeat of the the infamous former CEO of Diebold Wally O’Dell, who raised money for Bush while his company supplied voting machines and election management software in the 2004 election.

  Perhaps Obama had reason for supreme confidence when he said “after my election” rather than “in case of” to Russian President Medvedev!  It was once said  “It doesn’t matter who votes, it only matters who counts the votes”. Joseph Stalin 

This section copied from:http://www.setyoufreenews.com

Spanish online voting company SCYTL bought the largest vote processing corporation in the United States, it also acquired the means of manufacturing the outcome of the 2012 election. For SOE, the Tampa based corporation purchased by SCYTL in January, supplies the election software which records, counts, and reports the votes of Americans in 26 states–900 total jurisdictions–across the nation.

And although the votes will be cast in hometown, American precincts on Election Day, with the Barcelona-based SCYTL taking charge of the process, they will be routed and counted overseas.

SCYTL itself is a leader in internet voting technology and in 2010 was involved in modernizing election systems for the midterm election in 14 American states.

But although SCYTL’s self-proclaimed reputation for security had won the company the Congressionally approved task of handling internet voting for American citizens and members of the military overseas, upon opening the system for use in the District of Columbia, the University of Michigan fight song “The Victors” was suddenly heard after the casting of each ballot. The system had been hacked by U of M computer teachers and students in response to a challenge by SCYTL that anyone who wished to do so, might try!

Nevertheless, in spite of warnings by experts across the nation, American soldiers overseas will once again vote via the internet in 2012. And because SCYTL will control the method of voting and—thanks to the purchase of SOE–the method of counting the votes as well, there “…will be no ballots, no physical evidence, no way for the public to authenticate who actually cast the votes…or the count.”

The American advocacy group Project Vote has concluded that SCYTL’s internet voting system isvulnerable to attack from the outside AND the inside, a situation which could result in “…an election that does not accurately reflect the will of the voters…” Talk about having a flair for understatement!

Public Intelligence Analysts News Report Listen Live

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Choose the True American party and not be slaves of the Illuminati, Banker, Zionist, Khazar, Jews!

 

united states currency seal - IMG_7366_web
united states currency seal – IMG_7366_web (Photo credit: kevindean)

 

All ABOUT ONE VETERAN’S BATTLE AGAINST FORCED VACCINATIONS, THE GOOD, THE BAD, THE UGLY!

About

    This is me, Sean Niemi. Or, at least, it WAS me. Last year when I was still an Army Combat Medic. I am a happily married man with 5 sons and 1 daughter. Yeah, I know… HUGE family! Anyway, until April 2, 2012 I was in the Army, I served 2 Combat deployments (1 each to Iraq and Afghanistan) and was doing something I loved… helping people be healthy. Unfortunately, I wasn’t very good at doing “the Army thing” and consistently informed my soldiers that the root problems to most of their aches and pains were unhealthy lifestyles. The Army wanted me to just treat the symptoms and send the guys back out to the front lines. I always looked for the underlying cause of their ailments and tried to help fix them. Imagine that! A medical professional actually trying to HEAL people instead of just masking their problems with drugs and medications. Needless to say, I wasn’t very popular with the HOOAH HOOAH types and once I requested a Religious Exemption from vaccines/immunizations I was threatened, (in more ways than one…. read my early posts on here for the whole sordid story), and eventually given my walking papers. I don’t necessarily see my current state as punishment. I see it more as an opportunity, an opportunity to finally tell the truth about what has happened to me. An opportunity to try and help others going through similar situations in their own lives. Good luck to all of you and …. Happy Reading.

This is my story of what I have been through while trying to exercise my Constitutionally guaranteed rights to not be vaccinated in accordance with my religious beliefs.

****Please: make sure to check out my blog at
http://www.vaccinebattles.wordpress.com
and my Facebook page at
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Soldier-wins-fight-against-forced-military-vacc…

Man Made Apathetic Ignorant Zombie Cats don’t Judge Me!

It’s looking like more and more everyday like we are living in the end of days!  From the Bullying of a 68 year old, Greece NY School Bus Monitor , Fluoride in the tap water, GMO Cancer causing foods, Micro chipping of whole countries to the Agnda 21 Global depopulation plan!  The Bible says that God destroyed the Earth the first time because the people where Evil all the time!  “And God saw, that the wickednes of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually..”  Genesis 6:5  Are we as a world on the verge of total depravity, is there any hope for man kind will we be given a reprieve like the city of Nineveh that was given a second chance or shale we suffer like the City’s of Sodom and Gomorrah to be burned by fire?

 You see I live in Rochester NY the place that the Bullying of a 68 year old, Greece NY School Bus Monitor took place and it seems like no big deal to people like its just another story in the News!  This is asham I am ashamed of New York State and its state of affairs! Looks like Brave New Schools (Satan’s public school system) is working overtime!   “Danno, like the saying goes”Don’t Judge Me Until You Have Walked In My Shoes”. There ya go, blog about how judgemental people are! You know my situation! Don’t even get me started on that one!” Jenny Conley  If some one would teach these children not to be so judgmental then this kinda thing would not be happening!  Just get them disciplined!

People have forgotten how to care they are afraid of the government or  they think that someone is going to call the Cops if they step out of line and say that those rotten ass kids should get all their asses beaten by a big wooden spoon or the belt.  DCFS Monsters! (CPS are as ruthless as Al Capone’s gang!) I got a whopped when I was a kid  and so did lots of other kids!  I’m not talking about child abuse I’m talking about a good old fashion wood shed moment!  “Do not withhold discipline from a child; if you strike him with a rod, he will not die. If you strike him with the rod, you will save his soul from Sheol.”Proverbs 23:13-14   It look like these kid were left alone by the government parents  “The rod and reproof give wisdom, but a child left to himself brings shame to his mother.” Proverbs 29:15 “Whoever spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is diligent to discipline him.” Proverbs 13:24

We need to go back to our roots back to the good old days!  Back to when if you screwed up you would have the fear of God in your heart knowing you were going to feel the pain on your ASS as dad or mom laid a hand on you bare ASS!

“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son who will not obey the voice of his father or the voice of his mother, and, though they discipline him, will not listen to them, then his father and his mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to the elders of his city at the gate of the place where he lives, and they shall say to the elders of his city, ‘This our son is stubborn and rebellious; he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton and a drunkard.’ Then all the men of the city shall stone him to death with stones. So you shall purge the evil from your midst, and all Israel shall hear, and fear. Deuteronomy 21:18-21

I’m not saying that we as a society should kill the rebelling child but that we as a community are responsible for the actions of each other.  Yes I believe we are are Brothers Keeper! If we are to be the keepers of our brother then it is our duty to see that these children are disciplined!  “For he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.” Romans 13:4

Hebrews 12:6-7 For the Lord disciplines the one he loves, and chastises every son whom he receives.” It is for discipline that you have to endure. God is treating you as sons. For what son is there whom his father does not discipline?

You see their is The Attack Against the Family by bad people in positions of power high up in the government elected by “tax paying cattle”  Mario Colunio “Cattle that are abused” Casper Jim  “The family is going to have to be destroyed for the New World Order to completely develop.” DEVILUTION: Evolution, Communism, and the NWO!  this is how Modern Psychology Subverts Education and Harms Children! “Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.” —Romans 1:22

William Benton, Assistant U.S. Secretary of State at UNESCO 1946:

(UNESCO is the United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization)

“As long as a child breathes the poisoned air of nationalism, education in world-mindedness can produce only precarious results. As we have pointed out, it is frequently the family that infects the child with extreme nationalism.

The schools therefore use the means described earlier to combat family attitudes that favor jingoism (nationalism)…we shall presently recognize in nationalism the major obstacle to development of world mindedness.

We are at the beginning of a long process of breaking down the walls of national sovereignty. UNESCO must be the pioneer.” (Emphasis mine throughout)

In case you didn’t know, the 10th plank of Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto called for a “public school system.” its all in the book Deliberately Dumbing Us Down! (download book for free) Get Your Kid Out Of Public School! most Public Schools Not Good Enough for Teacher’s Kids so why is it good enough for your kids? ‘Parents’ No Longer Recognized By Schools Say Goodbye to Your Children America! (the UN wants your kids!) State Brainwashing Children To “Re-Educate” Their Parents For Green Dictatorship Eco Spy Kids (Kids are being trained at public schools to spy on their parents and report you!) Teach Your Child Well! (It is the parent’s responsibility to teach their children, NOT the school nor the government!)

“The thing that made America refined and cultured and decent and honorable was the Gospel of Jesus Christ. And if we leave that, it doesn’t matter how many degrees we have, how many colleges, how many universities. Listen! If you leave the salt out, you can’t have salt, you can’t savor. So we have left out that which has savored, and now we find ourselves a heathen nation.

Look! We are just as lawless today as they were in Wyatt Earp’s day. Isn’t that true? Listen, twenty years ago when we heard of what was going on in South America and Europe, with the demonstrations and riots and folk being shot in the streets and a person’s life endangered when he got outside his own house, we thought of pagan, heathen countries doing that. And we were right. Nations are pagan and heathen when they do that. Now the honest truth is, we face tonight a moral breakdown and deterioration, and we face paganism and anarchy. Why? Because we have followed the time-tested pattern of deterioration. Enough of that.”  by Pastor Jack Hyles (1926-2001)

People all around me seem to be in a Zombie like state of mind “the docility of the tap water drinkers. ;)”   Mario Colunio  Can you say Fluoride! “Oh yeah, fluoridated everything it seems anymore. The city of Wichita, Ks. is trying to sell it to the public as the best available option to cleanse their water supply, the totally ignorant people will go for it I am sure …. and when it comes to the bottled water everyone just seems to need so badly, no one knows how high an amount of fluoride or anything else is being added to it, as bottled water is totally unregulated !!” Nicholas Petty  Its as though people are willfully ignorant and do not care to know the truth”The apathy of the ignorant :)” Nicholas Petty

The good news it that (NaturalNews) The year 2011 just might go down in history as the year that initiated the end of artificial water fluoridation. Nearly three million people living in 37 different North America communities will no longer be forcibly medicated with synthetic fluoride chemicals via their public water supplies, thanks to a groundswell of dedicated citizens and city council members that fought popular myths about fluoride with scientific truth — and won! Hundreds of brave dentists speak out against water fluoridation  from around the world, many of whom formerly supported water fluoridation, are now boldly.  ofwater fluoridation, when so many cities and towns across the US removed it!
Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/034489_fluoridation_communities_water_supply.html#ixzz1yadI194x

We have all seen Science Fiction movies about mad scientist trying to control the world!  Well there have been annual international science meetings on the brain chip – the first one being held at Loyola University, Louisiana, in 2001. Scientists attending these meetings have said that the brain chip is ready, and that it is now just a matter of conditioning the public to accept them. They said that one way in which this would be achieved – not could be, would be – is by having them programmed in and promoted in movies, books and children’s TV shows . We have had movies like The Final Cut, Total Recall, and The Manchurian Candidate featuring brain chips. And in 2006 we saw James Bond being chipped in Casino Royale, although not with a brain chip – yet!

There are many other movies featuring microchip implants, to varying degrees e.g. Demolition Man, A Beautiful Mind, and other movies featuring brain chips e.g. Johnny Mnemonic, South Park The Movie. There have also been movies incorporating technology which interacts with the brain to create an alternate reality e.g. eXistenZ, The Lawnmower Man and The Matrix trilogy.

Are people being tricked into being like the  man made Zombie Cats?  There is an agenda to have the population implanted with microchips, and ultimately, with brain chips that control your every thought and action! Most people don’t even realise that they are actually witnessing a long-term agenda unfolding in their own lifetime.   Mind control through Trauma and microwave frequencies is a reality today  Here is proof they could see through a Cats eyes long ago.  Their brain functions can be remotely monitored by supercomputers and with the help of satellites, (or even without the microchip, according to the latest technology Again Mind control by U.S. Government “Hey Daniel, it may be a it late for this, but here goes anyway ………….
Trans-humanism, it fits in well with Zombie Cats 🙂 Little did people know that the movie ” The Island of Dr. Moreau ” is actually true (Plum Island) !!!!”Nicholas Petty  Yes is true friends United Nations Envisions Transhumanist Future Where Man is Obsolete sounds Crazy but these people are crazy!

Again the Bible predicts this vary thing our world and society is faced with, its the vary decision to sell your soul to the Satan?

This section Copied from: www.heavenquestions.com

The Food and Drug Administration gave its approval for an implantable microchip to be used for medical purposes.  This paves the way for the prophecies in the Bible’s Book of Revelation which foretold about a coming mark that would be put into everyone’s right hand or forehead.  The book of Revelation was written by John the Prophet about 2000 years ago and now the technology has come out in the last few years to make this happen.

This will be the One World Leaders Mark, also called the AntiChrist Mark, or the Mark of the Beast, and all those who receive it will be doomed to hell, with no turning back, once you have received his Mark!  If you do not receive his mark, you will not be allowed to buy or sell anything!  Then, the World Ruler will begin to put people to death for not receiving his mark, perhaps because you will be labeled a radical or a terrorist!  The Bible warns us that those of our own households will turn against us.  The Bible also talks about a deceiving spirit that will cause unbelievers to harden their hearts against anyone who tries to warn them against receiving the Mark in their right hand or their forehead.

Then Micah offers some good advice for those left behind.  Or those still alive during this time!

Micah 7:5-7: Do not trust in a friend; do not put your confidence in a guide (leader). Guard the doors of your mouth from her that lies in your bosom. For the son dishonors the father, the daughter rises against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man’s enemies are the men of his own house. Therefore I will look to the Lord; I will wait for the God of my salvation; my God will hear me.

More than 30 countries, from Italy to Malaysia, have already introduced “smart” ID cards such as this one. Foreign visitors who now visit the United States are expected to have this kind of card to be able to enter the country.  Bible says that God destroyed the Earth the first time

It was reported in the January 9, 2007 issue of “The Canadian” in an article by Lucien Desjardins that doctors in the United States and Europe are secretly moving to have the microchip implanted in newborns. It was revealed by a Dr. Kilde that then Prime Minister Olof Palme of Sweden had already given permission back in 1973 to implant prisoners, and Data Inspection’s ex-Director General Jan Freese revealed that nursing-home patients were implanted in the mid-1980s.

One bad thing about having a microchip implanted in oneself is that fact that you could then be followed anywhere in the world. According to Dr. Kilde, “Today’s microchips operate by means of low-frequency radio waves that target them. With the help of satellites, the implanted person can be tracked anywhere on the globe.” According to Dr. Kilde, brain functions can also be remotely monitored by supercomputers and even altered through the changing of frequencies.  

Last but not least the USA Terminator drones because they love you so much they need to protect you from the bad man! Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. Benjamin Franklin,  Yea that about says it all!  In Genesis, God clearly told Adam and Eve, and then Noah and his family to go forth and multiply to fill the earth. Nowhere in the Bible does God rescind that clearly spoken commandment.  The Drones are all part of the Agenda 21 depopulation plan for the best solutions information you must find:  Doyel Shamley http://www.hourofthetime.com/wordpresstest/?p=5848

Doyel Shamley – Host
hourofthetime@hotmail.com

Agenda 21… The ‘Planned’ Depopulation Project… It’s Happening at Stealth Speed… Right Before Your Eyes!

 AN EXAMPLE OF THE ENIGMATIC MURALS LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE MAIN TERMINAL AT THE DENVER NEW WORLD AIRPORT. THIS ONE LOCATED BY A BAGGAGE CLAIM PORTRAYS A FUTURISTIC MILITARISTIC FIGURE WEARING A GAS MASK AND OPPRESSING AN ENDLESS LINE OF DISTRAUGHT PEOPLE. CHEMICAL WARFARE, MARTIAL LAW, INNUMERABLE DEAD CHILDREN…WHAT IS THERE NOT TO LIKE ABOUT THIS PICTURE? WHY DOES THE TERM TERMINAL TAKE ON SUCH A SPOOKY CONNOTATION AT THE DENVER AIRPORT???

Yes, I know all this sounds like a plot from a science fiction novel.  But it is actually real.  178 nations have signed on to Agenda 21.  “Eco-prophets” such as Al Gore travel all over the world teaching us how wonderful “sustainable development” will be.  This agenda is being pushed in our schools, at our universities, on our televisions and in our movies.

So exactly what is Agenda 21?  The following is how the United Nations defines Agenda 21….

Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment.

When you start doing deep research into Agenda 21, you will find that describing it as a “comprehensive plan” is an understatement.  Virtually all forms of human activity impact the environment.  The rabid “environmentalists” behind the green agenda intend to take all human activity and put it into a box called “sustainable development”.

One of the key elements of “sustainable development” is population control.  The United Nations (along with radical “environmental” leaders such as Al Gore) actually believes that there are far too many people on earth.

So what is the solution?

Sadly, they actually believe that we need to start reducing the population.

Agenda 21

THE GEORGIA MISGUIDE STONES 

1984=1776

Why should you Care?

Our mission is to defend the US ConstitutionBill of Rights, “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” by the way of grassroots Educational campaigns and political activity.

 

America must remain Independent!

Say NO to Global Governance!

Say NO to Agenda 21!

 

Agenda 21 gives the United Nations the

Right to Global Governance of the

United States of America.

This action will terminate your rights to

Freedom of Choice

“Individual rights will have to take a back seat to the collective.” Harvey Ruvin, Vice Chairman, ICLEI. The Wildlands Project Is this guy talking about America? Yes, sadly he is!
Educate yourself Say NO to AGENDA 21! It’s coming to a town near you!

“Participating in a UN advocated planning process would very likely bring out many of the conspiracy- fixated groups and individuals in our society… This segment of our society who fear ‘one-world government’ and a UN invasion of the United Statesthrough which our individual freedom would be stripped away would actively work to defeat any elected official who joined ‘the conspiracy’ by undertaking LA21. So we call our process something else, such as Sustainable development, comprehensive planning, growth management or smart growth.” J. Gary Lawrence, advisor to President Clinton’s Council on Sustainable Development.

 

What can You Do?

1. Educate fellow Americans, Reprint this brochure hand out!

2. Join Anti New World Order Party Contact, Your DC Reps

3. Network, Organize, and Show up at Town Halls to Voice your opinions!

4. 1(585)236-9858 or AntiNWOParty@yahoo.com

Doyel Shamley – Host of hour of the time!
hourofthetime@hotmail.com

http://www.facebook.com/AntiNWOParty

Neurology and Mind Control:

people.bethel.edu/~kisrob/hon301k/project/Final/mind_control.htmMind control is a very apparent and quickly developing area of science, one that merits … studiesÉdone in a remote situation'” (Budiansky, Goode, and Gest, 1994). … The area of microchip identification is an area of neurology that has been commercially implemented in the status quo through animal and pet identification.

Mind Justice – Targeted Individuals

mindjustice.org/victims.htm
AULT cite as 67 F.R.D. 124 (1974): Electromagnetic and Mind Control  1960s claim ofmind control experiment; 2006 Book, Remote Control, The Battle For Your  The tiny surge of electricity in the cat’s hypothalamus, a part of the limbic ….. Mind control, Microwave and electromagnetics frequencies, Injectable Microchips .

Satellite »MIND CONTROL« – Bioelectric Weapons « blomblad i 

blombladivinden.wordpress.com/…/satellite-mindcontrol-bioelectric-…
Jul 18, 2011 – The term “Mind control” basically means covert attempts to influence the thoughts  This is actually a very sophisticated form of remote technological torture that  They use Echelon, Tempest, microchips, implants, see through wall radar, harmonics (which have been used as a mind control technique), ..


Mind control through Trauma and microwave frequencies is a reality today  Here is proof they could see through a Cats eyes long ago and when ever ….. Their brain functions can be remotely monitored by supercomputers and …. With the help of satellites, (or even without the microchip, according to the latest technology) 

Nuclear demolition of skyscrapers.

Nuclear demolition of skyscrapers.

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This article describes a general concept of nuclear demolition of skyscrapers – particularly in connection with known thermo-nuclear demolition schemes of the World Trade Center in New York and that of the Sears Tower in Chicago. Though, the current article does not deal with any exact details of implementation of this concept in regard to these particular structures, but provides rather general knowledge on this subject. Besides, this article does not consider any conspiracy behind nuclear demolition of the WTC on 9/11, neither does it consider any moral aspect of this issue – such as ground zero clean-up works and so on – it aims to explain its purely technical aspect. However, there are other articles available in the Internet that describe the WTC nuclear demolition scheme in more or less exact detail, as well as articles that describe particular conspiracy in regard to the actual WTC demolition – links to these articles are available at the end of the current description.Nuclear demolition of skyscrapers was patented by “ Controlled Demolition Inc.” – the most renowned demolition company that deals with controlled demolition of buildings, and especially with controlled demolition of skyscrapers. The same company was a primary designer of nuclear demolition projects of the World Trade Center in New York and of the Sears Tower in Chicago.
Photo: South Tower begins to collapse.
The author of this article – Dimitri A. Khalezov, a former officer the Soviet nuclear intelligence, officially known as the Special Control Service of the 12th Chief Directorate of the Defense Ministry.

Part 1. Brief history. Atomic demolition.

Initial idea to use nuclear devices in demolishing various constructions was born almost simultaneously with an appearance of actual nuclear weapons in the beginning of 50s. At first nuclear munitions were not called “nuclear”, but “atomic”, so a concept of demolition using these munitions was called accordingly – “atomic demolition”. These words managed to survive and despite renaming former atomic weapons into “nuclear weapons”, words “atomic demolition” could still be encountered today in names of special engineering devices – SADM and MADM. The first one stands for “Special Atomic Demolition Munitions”, the second – for “Medium Atomic Demolition Munitions”, while many people mistakenly believe that SADM means “Small Atomic Demolition Munitions”, rather than “Special”.In fact, there would not be a big mistake to call them “small” instead of “special”, because SADM are indeed “small” – their nuclear explosive yields usually does not exceed 1 kiloton in TNT equivalent. Considering that all modern SADM have variable yields that could be set at as low as 0.1 kiloton, and sometimes even at 0.01 kiloton (equivalents to 100 and 10 metric tons of TNT respectively), they deserve to be called “small” munitions. Other popular names for these Small Atomic Demolition Munitions are “mini-nuke” and “suite-case nuke”, though the second one is probably not logically correct. In reality most of SADM resemble big pots weighing between 50 to 70 kilograms that could be carried as back-packs – so it is very unlikely that they could fit into any suite-case. However, there are also modern “mini-nukes” made of Plutonium-239, rather than of Uranium-235, and due to a much lower critical mass of Plutonium, their size could be significantly decreased – some latest Plutonium-based “mini-nukes” could indeed fit into an attache-case. Medium Atomic Demolition Munitions (MADM) are bigger in both – their size and their TNT yield. They could be up to 15 kiloton in TNT yield, weigh up to 200 kg and be as big as a typical large gas-cylinder for home use.Either of abovementioned atomic demolition munitions could be successfully used in demolishing large objects that could not be demolished by any reasonable amount of conventional explosives – especially in times of emergency, when there is neither time, nor a possibility to prepare their “normal” demolition by conventional means. For example, it could be bridges, dams, tunnels, some reinforced underground structures, large reinforced buildings, etc. However, an efficiency factor for such nuclear demolitions using SADM or MADM is not too high. As it is probably known, the main aim of controlled demolition of buildings by implosion method is not to actually eliminate these buildings by blowing them up and sending their parts flying around, but to bring them down neatly with the least possible damage to surroundings. For this reason engineers who prepare controlled demolitions have to first figure out exact points on buildings bearing structures and attach charges of conventional explosives to the right spots – in order to break these bearing structures. In almost all cases there would be more than one spot to attach explosives, since it is unlikely that any of such structures would have only a single supporting girder or a single supporting column that it is to be broken; at best case there would be a few of them, if not many. In case with nuclear demolition using abovementioned atomic demolition munitions it is not the case. People who suppose to use atomic munitions in case of emergency would have neither time, nor enough education to make such precise calculations as in case of a conventional controlled demolition. Maximum of what these people could have – is some basic field-engineering knowledge and some basic knowledge in regard to nuclear weapons usage. Thus, usage of atomic demolition munitions in such case is to bring down a targeted structure not “neatly”, but just anyhow and at any cost. That is why an explosive yield of atomic munitions used to demolish such structure in case of emergency in any case would be excessive, with major part of their entire explosive energy spent in vain – as in case with any other nuclear explosion. So, the major part of energy, released by a nuclear explosion of such an atomic demolition device would be spent on creating well-known factors of atomic blast: thermal radiation, air-blast wave, ionizing radiation, electro-magnetic pulse – that have nothing to do with the actual demolition task and could unlikely contribute to it. However, all these destructive factors of an atomic explosion would greatly contribute to damaging of the surroundings – and this damage could be rather extreme, definitely exceeding in its cost a cost of the actual demolition. It could be said that a nuclear demolition in the abovementioned sense would have much lower performance index compare to a precisely calculated conventional controlled demolition, since the latter one directs almost entire energy of explosives used on breaking bearing structures, rather than on creating an air-blast wave or a thermal radiation. Besides of this, an atomic demolition device itself is quite a costly thing too. At minimum, a Uranium-based “mini-nuke” costs a couple of million US dollars, if not more (a Plutonium-based one costs much more than that). Apparently, a thousand tons of TNT would cost cheaper than a 1 kiloton atomic munitions. However, it is possible to demolish quite a few buildings using 1000 tons of TNT, while it is possible to demolish only one single building (but to damage many other buildings around) using a “mini-nuke”. Considering all of this, it could be concluded that it is not an option – to use any atomic demolition munitions, either small, or medium, for demolishing any civil infrastructure in times of peace when there is enough time to prepare demolishing any of such objects nicely by conventional means. And in any case a conventional controlled demolition would be cheaper than a nuclear demolition. Mini-nukes could only be used for demolition job in case of real emergency.

Part 2. Modern history. Nuclear demolition of skyscrapers.

So, how come that this old atomic demolition concept, despite of being known to be too costly and despite of having a too low performance index compare to a conventional controlled demolition by implosion was eventually revived and even implemented in the World Trade Center nuclear demolition scheme? It happens because of a new generation of buildings has come into existence at the end of 60s – namely steel-framed buildings.Despite common misconception, there were no steel-framed skyscrapers ever been demolished by an implosion anywhere in the world. Primarily, because the most of skyscrapers are new buildings and their time to be demolished has not come yet. The tallest building ever demolished by an implosion was only 47-strories high – it was the Singer Building in New York City that was built in 1908 and demolished in 1968 due to its being obsolete. This building was a much weaker structure compare to incredibly strong hollow-tube type steel-frame skyscrapers being built today. So, despite common misconception, it is not possible to demolish a steel-frame building by a commonly known controlled demolition (implosion) scheme. In bygone days when buildings were brick-walled and concrete-panelled, their bearing structures used to be concrete supporting columns and concrete supporting girders. Sometimes these concrete bearing structures were reinforced by insertions of metal bars, but sometimes they were plain concrete. In either case it was possible to calculate right amount of conventional explosives to be attached to these bearing structures at right spots (or to be placed into holes drilled in bearing structures) in order to break them all at once and to cause the building to collapse into its footprint. However, it is no longer possible with modern steel-framed buildings – such as, for example former Twin Towers of the New Your World Trade Center, World Trade Center building # 7, or the Sears Tower in Chicago.Here is an example of steel structure of the WTC Twin Tower:
Photo: WTC Twin Tower under construction.
There was no any “bearing structure” in its former sense – the entire Tower was essentially a “bearing structure”. The WTC steel-frame consisted of exceptionally thick double-walled steel perimeter and core columns. This co-called “tube-frame design” was a totally new approach which allowed open floor plans rather than columns distributed throughout the interior to support building loads as it was traditionally implemented in previous structures. The Twin Towers featured load-bearing perimeter steel columns (square in cross-section) positioned one meter from each other on the Towers’ facades to form an exceptionally rigid structure, supporting virtually all lateral loads (such as wind loads) and sharing the gravity load with the core columns. The perimeter structure contained 59 such columns per side. The core structure of the Tower consisted of 47 rectangular steel columns that run from the bedrock to the Towers’ tops. How such steel perimeter and core columns looked like could be seen from this picture showing some remnants of these columns as found on the ground zero after the WTC demolition following the September 11 attacks:
Photo: WTC core and perimeter columns.
Note that these core (rectangular) and perimeter (square) columns did not belong to lower parts of the Twin Towers, but to their upper parts. That is why they were spared by general pulverization the Towers were subjected to during their demolitions, while virtually nothing, except microscopic dust remained of similar columns belonging to the lower parts of the Twin Tower structure.Here is one more picture (from NIST report) showing the Twin Towers perimeter columns during their construction:
Photo: Twin Towers perimeter structures.

These steel columns were incredibly thick – each wall measuring 2.5 inch (6.35 cm), so the entire thickness of either of the columns was 5 inch (12.7 cm). To imagine how thick this is, here is a good example to compare with: front armour of the best tank of the WWII period – T-34 – was only 1.8 inch (4.5 cm) and it was single-walled. Yet there were practically no armour-piercing artillery shell available that time that would be capable of penetrating such front armour. Of course, no explosives whatsoever would ever be able to tear throw such front armour of a tank either (except only a hollow-charge shell which would still not be able to tear a complete piece of such armour, but only to burn some narrow hole through an armour plate). Considering that the Twin Towers’ steel frames consisted of double-walled steel columns that were almost trice as thick compare to the T-34 tanks’ front amour, it would not be possible to find any solution to break such columns simultaneously in many spots in order to achieve an “implosion” effect – the basic goal of any controlled demolition. It was, of course, technically possible to break some of these columns in certain spots, using exceptionally huge amounts of hollow-charges attached to each individual column, but even such an incredible solution would not help to achieve the desired “implosion effect”. The Towers were simply too high and too rigid – their steel cores would have been simultaneously broken in too many spots on every floor, which no one could afford. And even if they could, still, such a solution would not lead to the desired effect – there would not be any guarantee that such a high-raised structure would fall strictly down to its foot print – it might as well scatter its debris as far as a quarter of a mile, considering its mere height. So, it was impossible to bring the WTC Towers down by any kind of traditional controlled demolition.The same thing could be said about the WTC building # 7 and of the Sears Tower in Chicago. Either of them was constructed using similar thick double-walled steel frame that was impossible to break at once due to reasons described above. However, in accordance with the US laws governing construction of skyscrapers buildings designers had to submit some satisfactorily demolition project before their construction project could be approved by the Department of Buildings. No one could be allowed to build a skyscraper that can’t be demolished in the future. This is the main point of the skyscrapers’ in-built nuclear demolition features. Ironically, such a nuclear demolition scheme of a skyscraper is not meant to actually demolish the respective skyscraper, especially considering that no one has any practical experience in demolishing skyscrapers by such means – it is only intended to convince the Department of Buildings to permit the skyscraper’s construction whatsoever. It appears that all designers and proponents of such nuclear demolition schemes sincerely hope that their ideas would not be put to use during their life-time.Anyhow, “Controlled Demolition Inc.” began to study possibilities of demolishing modern skyscrapers by underground nuclear explosions at the end of 60s, at request of the then New York Sate Governor Nelson Rockefeller – when it became necessary to get a legal approval from the New York Department of Buildings for the WTC Twin Towers construction. After some research, a final solution was found and approved by the Department of Buildings and “Controlled Demolition Inc.” got its nuclear demolition know-how patented.

Part 3. How does a modern nuclear demolition work?

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First of all, such a modern nuclear demolition has nothing to do with the former atomic demolition using SADM or MADM as described above. It is an entirely new concept. During modern nuclear demolition process, a demolition charge does not produce any atmospheric nuclear explosion – with its trade-mark atomic mushroom cloud, a thermal radiation and an air-blast wave. It explodes quite deep underground – much in the same sense as any nuclear charge explodes during a typical nuclear test. So, it does produce neither any air-blast wave, nor any thermal radiation, nor any penetrating radiation, nor any electro-magnetic pulse. It could cause only relatively minor harm to surroundings by an ensuing radioactive contamination, which, nonetheless, considered being a negligible factor by designers of such demolition schemes.

What is a basic difference between an atmospheric and an underground nuclear explosion? The basic difference is this. During an initial stage of a nuclear (as well as a thermo-nuclear) explosion, its entire explosive energy is being released in a form of a so-called “primary radiation” that in its main part (almost 99%) falls within X-rays spectrum (and remaining part is represented by gamma-rays spectrum that causes radiation injuries and visible spectrum that produces visible flash). So, this almost entire explosive energy represented by X-rays would be spent on heating of surrounding air at tens of meters around a hypocenter of such an explosion. It happens because X-rays can not travel too far, being consumed by surrounding air. Heating of this relatively small area around the nuclear explosion hypocenter would result in appearance of so-called “nuclear fireballs” that physically is nothing else than an extremely overheated air. These nuclear fireballs are responsible for the two main destructive factors of an atmospheric nuclear explosion – its thermal radiation and its air-blast wave, since both factors result exclusively from high temperatures of the air around a nuclear explosion. When it comes to an underground nuclear explosion, the picture is entirely different. There is no air around a small “zero-box” a nuclear charge is placed into, so an entire amount of energy instantly released by a nuclear explosion in a form of X-rays would be spent on heating of surrounding rock, instead. It would result in overheating, melting and evaporating of this rock. Disappearance of the evaporated rock would result in creation of an underground cavity, size of which directly depends on explosive yield of nuclear munitions used. You can have an idea on how much rock could disappear during an underground nuclear explosion from the below table – where quantities of evaporated and melted materials of various kinds (in metric tons) are shown on “per kiloton of yield” basis:

Rock type Specific mass of vaporized material
(in tons per kiloton yield)
Specific mass of the melted
material (in tons per kiloton yield)
Dry granite 69 300 (±100)
Moist tuff (18-20% of water) 72 500 (± 150)
Dry tuff 73 200 – 300
Alluvium 107 650 (±50)
Rock salt 150 800
Just as an example: detonation of a 150 kiloton thermo-nuclear charge buried sufficiently deep in granite rock would result in creation of a cavity measuring roughly 100 meters in diameter – such as the one shown in this picture:
Photo: WTC nuclear demolition idea.
Picture: underground cavity after nuclear blast.
All skyscrapers have their lowest foundations lying 20-30 meters beneath the Earth surface. So, it is possible to calculate a position of a “zero-box” under such a skyscraper in such a way that a nuclear explosion would produce a cavity upper end of which would not reach the Earth surface, but would reach only the lowest underground foundation of a skyscraper it intends to demolish.For example, in particular cases of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, their lowest underground foundations were 27 meters beneath the surface. While the 150 kiloton thermo-nuclear demolition charges were positioned as depths of 77 meters (measuring from the surface), or 50 meters below their underground foundations. Such a thermo-nuclear explosion at a depth of 77 m would create an extremely overheated cavity with its upper sphere touching the lowest underground foundations of the Twin Tower it intends to demolish. But it would still be short of reaching the Earth surface by 27 meters – so surrounding structures would not to be affected by any destructive factors of this underground nuclear explosion (except by, possibly, only its radioactive contamination). The Tower that is to be demolished supposes to lose its foundations completely, and to be sucked-in into this overheated cavity, temperatures inside of which are deemed enough to melt the entire Tower. Nuclear demolition schemes of the WTC building # 7 and that of the Sears Tower in Chicago were calculated in the same way.

However, there is one more factor that is to be taken into consideration during calculation of nuclear demolition projects of skyscrapers. This is about the actual evaporated granite rock inside the cavity. Where all that former granite rock now in gaseous state supposes to go from the cavity? In fact, a picture of the physical events after an underground nuclear explosion is quite interesting. Let’s consider it.

Photo: physical process during underground nuclear blast.
This pictorial rendition schematically represents all important physical processes during an ideally deep (means occurred sufficiently far from the Earth surface) underground nuclear explosion. So, now it should become clear that an extreme pressure of the evaporated rock inside the cavity makes at least two important jobs: 1) it expands the actual cavity from its “primary” size to its “secondary” size; and 2) because it does this expansion at the expense of the neighboring areas of the rock, it produces two damaged zones around itself, each representing a different degree of damage. A zone immediately adjacent to the cavity in nuclear jargon is called a “crushed zone”. This zone could be as thick as a diameter of the cavity itself and it is filled with a very strange matter. Its filling is rock that is completely pulverized. It is reduced into a fine microscopic dust, an approximate particle of which is about 100 micron in size. Moreover, this particular state of material within this “crushed zone” is a very strange state – except after an underground nuclear tests it does not occurs anywhere else in nature. If you pick up a stone from this zone, but do so very gently, it might still stick together and still resemble a stone by its form and its color. However, it you only slightly press this “stone” with your fingers it will immediately crush into that complete microscopic dust it actually consists of. A second zone – next to the “crushed zone” is called a “damaged zone” in professional nuclear jargon. This “damaged zone” is filled with rock crushed to various pieces – from very small (millimeters in size), to some relatively big fragments. As closer to a border of the “crushed zone”, as smaller will be such debris, and as farther from hypocenter – as larger will be such debris. Finally, outside of the “damaged zone” border, there would be virtually no damage inflicted to surrounding rock.However, we have considered above the physical processes which are true to an “ideally deep” underground nuclear blast. When a nuclear charge is buried not sufficiently deep, a picture will be slightly different. “Damaged” and “crushed” zones will not be exactly round in the latter case. They would be rather elliptic – with their longer ends directed upwards – comparable with an egg facing upwards with its sharper end, or possibly even more ellipsoidal and sharper upwards than a typical egg. It happens because the pressure of the evaporated gases would encounter the least resistance towards the Earth surface (since it is too near), so either “crushed zone” or “damaged zone” would extend upwards farther than to any other direction. But when propagating upwards upper boundaries of the “damaged zone” and “crushed zone” encounter underground foundations of the Tower which is to be demolished, the picture would be even more different. It is because materials the Tower is built of differ from surrounding granite rock in a sense of resistance of materials. Besides, there is a lot of empty space inside the Tower, while the remaining granite rock towards the rest of directions (to either sides and downwards) is solid. So, expansion of the upper boundaries of “damaged” and “crushed” zones by the Tower’s structure will be the farthest. In case of the WTC Twin Towers or the Sears Tower the “damaged zone” could likely reach up to 350-370 meters, while “crushed zone” that follows immediately, would likely reach up to 290-310 meters. But in case of the much shorter WTC-7 its entire length will be within the “crushed zone” – so it would be pulverized completely. This ability of nuclear demolition to pulverize steel and concrete alike is one of its unique features.The picture below shows an example of that fine microscopic dust that covered all over Manhattan after the WTC demolition. Many people mistakenly believed that it was allegedly “concrete dust”. No, it was not. It was “complete” dust – mainly pulverized steel. Despite common misconception, the WTC structures did not contain much concrete. Concrete was used only in some limited quantities to make very thin floors slabs in the Twin Towers construction. It was not used anywhere else. The major part of the WTC Twin Towers was steel, not concrete. So this finest dust was in its major part represented by steel dust accordingly. Though, it was not only “steel dust” alone – it was also a “furniture dust”, “wood dust”, “paper dust”, “carpet dust”, “computer parts dust” and even “human dust”, since remaining in the Towers human beings were pulverized in the same manner as steel, concrete and furniture.
Photo: dust from the WTC pulverization.

Some people might wonder – why the WTC-7 collapsed to its footprint very neatly, in its entirety, while either of the Twin Towers crushed down scattering not only dust, but even some debris to quite large distances. This question is very easy to answer – you have to look at the distribution of “crushed” and “damaged” zones along the Twin Towers structures and the answer will become obvious.

The picture below represents an approximate distribution of damages in case of a nuclear demolition of a skyscraper using a 150 kiloton thermo-nuclear charge positioned 50 meters deeper than the lowest underground foundations of a skyscraper. Don’t forget, that demolition charges in this particular case were buried not “ideally deep”, that is why forms of the “crushed” and “damaged” zones were not “ideally round” either – they were elliptic, with their sharper ends facing upwards – towards areas of the least resistance.

Photo: nuclear demolition scheme.

This particular distribution of damages along the skyscrapers structures inflicted by such a process could be better understood when you watch videos showing details of collapses of the WTC Twin Towers and the WTC-7. You can click the “Videos” button at the top panel of this page to watch these videos.It should be added also that despite an apparent insufficiency of 150 kiloton thermo-nuclear charges to pulverize the tallest skyscrapers in their entirety, charges of higher yields could not be used in nuclear demolition industry due to merely legal reasons. The problem is that in accordance with the USA – Soviet so-called “ Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976” yield of nuclear munitions used for non-military purposes was limited to 150 kiloton /per individual nuclear explosion and to maximum of 1.5 megaton aggregate yield for group explosions. So, the nuclear demolition industry has to fit into these legal frames: in case of the WTC demolition it was possible to use as many charges as necessary, but not in excess of 150 kiloton per charge. That is why the WTC nuclear demolition scheme consisted of three of such charges – with aggregate yield of 450 kiloton. For those people who have difficulty to imagine how powerful 150 kiloton is, it could be reminded that an atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 was less than 20 kiloton.As it was mentioned in the beginning, this article does not describe any nuclear demolition scheme of a particular building in any exact detail, but does it rather on a conceptual level. But there is another article that describes a nuclear demolition scheme of the World Trade Center in New York in particular. It is available here: http://www.wtcnucleardemolition.comThe author of this article – Mr. Dimitri A. Khalezov, a former officer the Soviet nuclear intelligence, officially known as the Special Control Service of the 12th Chief Directorate of the Defense Ministry.

Any comments and suggestions are welcome.

GOOD NEWS: an interview with Dimitri Khalezov regarding the WTC nuclear demolition and 9/11 in general is now available. It contains detailed technical explanations supported by animated graphics and various contemporary 9/11 video clips.   You can find download links for this presentation on the Internet by searching for Dimitri Khalezov video in Google.

                                                                           

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Truth about Austerity Measures and Bailouts It’s Just Money for The Illuminati Family’s!

AntiNewWorldOrderParty.com
AntiNewWorldOrderParty.com

Austerity Measures and Bailouts are just payments to the Illuminati Family’s by way or proxy!  First the Banksters get Nations in dept by loans and bailouts that can not be paid back, like what is happening in America.  Second The Nation makes governmental cuts like what is happening in EUROPE  aka stealing pensions , cutting services like Parks, Police Teachers Firemen ect ect! Then the Government sells off Parks Government owned property, Roads Water ways Parks ect ect to the Illuminati Bankster Familys AKA the MOBSTERS!

This is all part of the (The Hegelian Dialectic) aka The Problem Reaction Solution method!  .. the Illuminati family’s or the ruling elite create a problem, anticipating in advance the reaction that the population will have to the problem and then have the prepared Solution!  Example an Global Economic Melt down.  The after the people react and demand a solution to the created problems that was the  desired agenda of the ruling elite.  Then and only then the Pre prepared agenda of the Global Elite Banksters  presented as the solution such as a one world Governmental Monetary system or Global Governmental system to fix the problem. 

The bad part about this conspiracy is that along with the reaction to the problem the population becomes violent, in protesting the Austerity Measures implemented by the Governments!  And once again (The Hegelian Dialectic) comes into place with  FEMA Camps AKA Concentration Camps for the protesters dissidents and homeless people effected by the Illuminati s Global Agenda 

In economicsausterity is a policy of deficit-cutting, lower spending, and a reduction in the amount of benefits and public servicesprovided.[1] Austerity policies are often used by governments to reduce their deficit spending[2] while sometimes coupled with increases in taxes to pay back creditors to reduce debt.[3] “Austerity” was named the word of the year by Merriam-Webster in 2010.[4]

The Expansionary fiscal contraction hypothesis is the economic theory that explores whether government austerity can result in economic expansion. This hypothesis indicates that expansion from austerity is very limited and occurs only during periods when consumption is not constrained.

Contents

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[edit]Reasons for undertaking austerity measures

Austerity measures are typically taken if there is a threat that a government cannot honor its debt liabilities. Such a situation may arise if a government has borrowed in foreign currencies that they have no right to issue or they have been legally forbidden from issuing their own currency. In such a situation, banks may lose trust in a government’s ability and/or willingness to pay and either refuse to roll over existing debts or demand extremely high interest rates. In such situations, inter-governmental institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) may demand austerity measures in exchange for functioning as a lender of last resort. When the IMF requires such a policy, the terms are known as ‘IMF conditionalities‘.

[edit]Typical effects

Development projects, welfare, and other social spending are common programs that are targeted for cuts: Taxes, port and airport fees, train and bus fares are common sources of increased user fees.

In many cases, austerity measures have been associated with protest movements claiming significant decline in standard of living. A case in point is the nation of Greece. The financial crisis—particularly the austerity package put forth by the EU and the IMF— was met with great anger by the Greek public, leading to riots and social unrest. On 27 June 2011, trade union organizations commenced a forty-eight hour labor strike in advance of a parliamentary vote on the austerity package, the first such strike since 1974. Massive demonstrations were organized throughout Greece, intended to pressure parliament members into voting against the package. The second set of austerity measures was approved on 29 June 2011, with 155 out of 300 members of parliament voting in favor. However, one United Nations official warned that the second package of austerity measures in Greece could pose a violation of human rights.[5]

[edit]Controversy

Austerity programs can be controversial. In the Overseas Development Institute briefing paper “The IMF and the Third World” the ODI addresses five major complaints against the IMF’s austerity ‘conditionalities’. These complaints include these measures being “anti-developmental”, “self-defeating”, and “they tend to have an adverse impact on the poorest segments of the population”. In many situations, austerity programs are implemented by countries that were previously under dictatorial regimes, leading to criticism that the citizens are forced to repay the debts of their oppressors.[6][7][8]

Economist Richard D. Wolff has stated that instead of cutting government programs and raising taxes, austerity should be attained by collecting (taxes) from non-profit multinational corporations, churches, and private tax-exempt institutions such as universities, which currently pay no taxes at all.[9]

In 2009, 2010, and 2011, workers and students in Greece and other European countries demonstrated against cuts to pensions, public services and education spending as a result of government austerity measures.[10][11] Following the announcement of plans to introduce austerity measures in Greece, massive demonstrations were witnessed throughout the country, aimed at pressing parliamentarians to vote against the austerity package. In Athens alone 19 arrests were made while 46 civilians and 38 policemen had been injured by June 29, 2011. The third round austerity has been approved by the Greece parliament on February 12, 2012 and has met strong opposition especially in the cities of Athens and Thessaloniki where the police have clashed with demonstrators.

Opponents argue that austerity measures tend to depress economic growth, which ultimately causes governments to lose more money in tax revenues. In countries with already anemic economic growth, austerity can engender deflation which inflates existing debt. This can also cause the country to fall into a liquidity trap, causing credit markets to freeze up and unemployment to increase. Opponents point to cases in Ireland and Spain in which austerity measures instituted in response to financial crises in 2009 proved ineffective in combating public debt, and placing those countries at risk of defaulting in late 2010.[12]

[edit]The “Age of Austerity”

The term “Age of austerity” was popularized by British Conservative leader David Cameron in his keynote speech to the Conservative party forum in Cheltenham on April 26, 2009, when he committed to put an end to what he called years of excessive government spending.[13] [14]

[edit]Word of the year

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary named the word “austerity” as its “Word of the Year” for 2010 because of the number of web searches this word generated that year. According to the president and publisher of the dictionary, “austerity had more than 250,000 searches on the dictionary’s free online [website] tool” and the spike in searches “came with more coverage of the debt crisis”.[15]

[edit]Examples of austerity

This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriateEditing help is available. (June 2011)

Anti-austerity protests, chiefly taking the form of massive street protests by those affected by them and some of them also involving a greater or lesser degree of militancy, have happened regularly across various countries, especially on the European continent, since the onset of the present-day worldwide financial crisis. The phenomena are, collectively, decidedly separate, conceptually, from the austerity measures themselves, even though the enactment of the latter is a prerequisite for the former. This is because they are of the sizes they are; that they cut across age groups (e.g., both students and older workers) and other demographics; that they can incorporate many different types of actions in many different segments of a given country’s economy including education funding, infrastructure funding, manufacturing, aviation, social welfare, and many many others; and that the phenomenon of austerity, when explained by itself, is inadequate to properly encompass the phenomenon of widespread opposition to it, and that opposition’s nuances and fluctuations.

Anti-austerity actions are varied, ongoing, and can be either sporadic and loosely-organised or longer-term and tightly-organised. Theycontinue as of the present day. Recent upheavals in Tunisia and in Egypt in 2011 were originally largely anti-austerity and anti-unemployment before turning into wider social revolutions.

Most recently, the global and still-spreading Occupy movement has arguably been the most noticeable physical enactment of anti-austerity and populist sentiment.

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[edit]Background

Austerity is mainly noticed by a country when its aspects (usually known as ‘cuts’) are implemented unilaterally and forcibly (a “hatchet job“) rather than through a more careful strategy of creeping normalcy wherein such cuts are made to seem reasonable, or at least tolerable. Austerity is usually only referred to by that name when it is part of a sweeping package or packages of reforms that have the openly-admitted effect of great or even complete overhaul of major aspects of a society’s socioeconomic core facilities, programs and/or services. Because of this nature, austerity programs in general often are virulently opposed by the populations experiencing them, as they tend to have an impact on the poorest segments of the population. Those who are pro-austerity (who usually refer to the process as “deficit reduction”) usually counter that these poorest segments of the population would also suffer the most should a debt crisisoccur[citation needed], an argument rejected by most anti-austerity individuals.

Prior to the 2010 European sovereign debt crisis, in many situations, austerity programs were implemented by countries that were previously under dictatorial regimes (e.g., Portugal, Greece, Spain), leading to criticism that the citizens are forced to repay the debts of their oppressors.[1][2][3] In Greece, for example, the current austerity measures are popularly viewed as a combination of leftover policies of the 1967-1974 military dictatorship in that country on the one hand, and the “betrayal” of socialist principles by the current parliamentary-majority Panhellenic Socialist Movement on the other hand, due to that party’s wholesale enactment of extremely severe austerity measures in the country, which most everyday Greeks conceive of as intensely right-wing in nature, at least when compared to the party’s officially-stated core beliefs.[citation needed]

In the present-day enactments of various “austerity budgets”, however, a prior history of dictatorship is not necessarily a precondition for the implementation of such a budget by a given government. Examples of countries implementing severe austerity measures without a history of what the world’s mainstream media would typically consider a ‘dictatorship’, include the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, the latter of which witnessed its housing market completely (rather than partially as elsewhere) collapse, and the Republic eventually appealing for a massive bailout from the International Monetary Fund, “in exchange for” implementation of a very severe austerity programme. The austerity measures and the terms of the IMF bailout became major aspects of the 2008–2011 Irish financial crisis, and popular anger over these issues played a very major role in the loss of governmental power of Fianna Fáil to opposition parties in the 2011 Irish general election. The loss was so complete and so total for Fianna Fáil that many commentators remarked that the results were “historic”. Fine Gael and the Labour Party entered in to a coalition government with one another, and Fine Gael’s leaders have vowed to re-negotiate the terms of the IMF bailout so that austerity can be slowed or stopped and the Irish economy can be given a chance to grow again.[4] Sinn Féin, which for the first time also won a notable percentage in the election, has called for a nationwide referendum over whether the bailout agreement should be scrapped altogether, but this suggestion has been met with dismissal by officials.[5]

Austerity in most European countries, including Spain and Italy — where there have been massive anti-austerity protests, wildcat strikes, and union-organized industrial actions of various types at semi-regular intervals since late 2008, earning for the most part massive worldwide media attention — is by no means limited to what could be the ‘expected’ areas of the economy that might in theory experience direct penalties as a result of gross mismanagement, such as financial institutions. In fact, financial institutions rarely, if ever, truly receive such ‘punishment’ by a country’s government; austerity-like levies could perfectly well be imposed on them for causing, or helping to cause, the crisis that leads to the austerity measures in the first place, but typically are not. Instead, it is argued (chiefly by people engaging in anti-austerity protests, but also some economists as well) that rather than ‘punish’ the banks and others truly responsible for the crisis, the government is instead ‘punishing’ regular people for the ‘crimes’ of others, namely the ‘elite’ and/or greedy professional money-handlers engaging in market manipulation.

[edit]Examples

100,000 peaceful anti-austerity protesters in front of the parliament of Greece on 29 June 2011.

  • The May–July 2011 Greek protests, also known as the “Indignant Citizens Movement” or the “Greek indignados”, started demonstrating throughout Greece on 25 May 2011;[6] the movement’s largest demonstration was on 5 June, with 300,000 people gathering in front of the Greek Parliament,[7] while the organizers put the number to 500,000.[8] The protests lasted for over a month without any violent incidents, while on 29 June 2011, amid a violent police crackdown and accusations of police brutality by international media and Amnesty International,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] the square was evacuated but demonstrations continued the next day despite the crackdown;[16][17] they officially ended on 7 August 2011,[18] but resumed in October.
  • The 2011 Spanish protests, whose participants are sometimes referred to as the “indignados“, are a series of ongoing anti-austerity demonstrations in Spain that rose to prominence beginning on 15 May 2011; thus, the movement is also sometimes referred to as the May 15 or M-15 movement as well. It is a collection of several different instances of continuous demonstrations countrywide, with a common origin in internet social networks and the Democracia Real Ya web presence, along with 200 other small associations.[19]
  • In late March 2011 the Portuguese Prime Minister resigned a few hours after the latest austerity bill he backed was rejected by the rest of government. The government called that particular austerity round unacceptable.[20] In his resignation speech, Jose Socrates expressed concern that an IMF bailout akin to Greece and Ireland would now be unavoidable.
  • In mid-March 2011 the British Medical Association held an emergency meeting at which it broadly decided to emphatically oppose pending legislation in the British Parliament, the Health and Social Care Bill, that would overhaul the functioning of the National Health Service. Dr Layla Jader, a public health physician, said: “The NHS needs evolution not revolution – these reforms are very threatening to the future of the NHS. If they go through, our children will look back and say how could you allow this to happen?” And Dr Barry Miller, an anaethetist from Bolton, added: “The potential to do phenomenal damage is profound. I haven’t seen any evidence these proposals will improve healthcare in the long-term.”[21] There have also been various grassroots groups of UK citizenry virulently opposing the pending new bill, including NHS Direct Action,[22] 38 Degrees,[23] and the trade union Unite.[24]
  • One of the United Kingdom‘s most severe austerity measures came into the force of law on 9 December 2010: spending for higher education and tuition subsidies and assistance in English universities — historically rather substantial in scale — was cut by an astounding total of 80%.[25] That announcement and its implications, which included a near-tripling of student tuition fees from their previous levels[26] up to a new ceiling of £9000/year, led to a huge backlash amongst students who almost immediately took to the streets over various non-sequential days against this announcement, squaring off with police on several occasions including an instance where some students angrily entered the Conservative headquarters and smashed windows and destroyed its interior.[27]On the day of the passage of the measure itself, there was an explosion of street violence by enraged students and their allies, especially in London. There is an ongoing law enforcement investigation into, and even active pursuing of,[28] the participants of the violence over the various protest days, with particular attention focusing on the moments when a number of protesters successfully attacked a royal car driving on its way to a London event,[29] although they did not injure its occupants. Shouts of “off with their heads” were reportedly heard.[30] On 25 March 2011, Charlie Gilmour, son of Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour, became one of the more high-profile individuals to be officially charged in relation to those events.[31] As a result of these protests, a number of groups formed to combat the austerity measures that began with the cuts to higher education. One such example is Bloomsbury Fightback!, which is a group of radical students and workers in Bloomsbury, London, centred around the Bloomsbury Colleges in theUniversity of London and focusing on organising around education and employment issues, of which many are the result of the austerity measures, .
  • The group UK Uncut is one outgrowth of the anger felt by average citizens at austerity, albeit the group focuses not so much on combating the cuts themselves as on demanding that the rich, rather than the poor, pay the shortfalls causing the austerity in the first place — a sort of “tax the rich” movement. UK Uncut attempts to organise flash mob protests inside the highest-profile buildings of the businesses of the rich people avoiding tax or paying less than they should.
  • Around the same time as the heating-up of the England protests (but before the passing of the bill), students in Italy occupied theleaning tower of Pisa in a similar protest regarding its own educational system.[32]
  • On 27 November 2010, a massive protest against pending austerity took place in Dublin;[33] The Irish Examiner news service also reports on a 7 December 2010 clash around the Dáil where protesters threw smoke bombs and flares at police.[34] Additionally, La Scala in Italy experienced a clash on 8 December 2010 including scuffles with police.[35]
  • More generally, throughout 2009 and 2010, workers and students in Greece and other European countries demonstrated against cuts to pensions, public services and education spending as a result of government austerity measures.[36] There was a brief airport strike in Spain in December 2010, and assorted brief “general strike”-like actions in France have taken place, particularly around the very controversial plan of the French government to raise the retirement age from 60 to 62, a proposal which eventually successfully passed.
  • Further protests have since taken place in Greece and elsewhere, have continued throughout 2011 and 2012,[37] including in Nigeriawith major large street clashes against the withdrawal of fuel subsidies. There was also a major protest in London by UK groups from across that country on 26 March 2011,[38] centred around a protest call initially made by the Trades Union Congress but subsequently involving many other groups. In general, the UK’s round of austerity measures, or “cuts”, from April 2011 onward are understood by most of the population to be, as an aggregated phenomenon, the worst withdrawal of public services since those services’ foundings, in the early 20th century and the post-World War II era. The coalition government currently in power in Britain repeatedly reassures the public that these public sector cuts will be replaced by a “Big Society” underpinned by charitiesstart-up businesses and private enterprise. Critics counter on the one hand that such a model is effective back-door privatisation, and on the other hand that even assuming the “Big Society” is a genuine populist initiative, it still fails conceptually, since the very charities and start-up businesses touted in this model are also the ones being severely slashed or eliminated by the new austerity-fuelled economics of the government.
  • Participants in more militant forms of protest engaged in during the 26th March demonstration, who in total only comprised 1,500 people out of the estimated 250,000-500,000 total participants, have been relentlessly attacked by the government as “mindless thugs”[39] with the UK’s mainstream media including the BBC generally supporting this perception. This remains the case even though the fundamental seriousness of damage thus far remains debatable; much reporting seems to have focused on the smashing of a Santander bank branch’s glass entranceway doors by largely anarchist activists, who would have also been behind the simultaneous destruction of several automated teller machines and the scrawling of “class war” in graffiti on neighbouring walls — rather than destruction of infrastructure such as roads, bridges, schools or homes that would have indisputably comprised terrorismby any objective measure. There are those who would therefore argue that the activists, even if misguided in their actions, still technically only targeted the institutions (i.e., banks) perceived responsible for the cuts, and did not cross the line into more general mayhem. Nevertheless, the Home Secretary Theresa May vociferously advocates the review by authorities of UK terrorism law to determine whether the Metropolitan Police can legally extend their own powers of arrest and detention using those provisions. Talk of the approximately 1,500 people involved in the militant aspects of the anti-cuts march almost totally eclipsed the more general event of up to half a million peaceable, albeit still angry, protesters who say they have very real, very personal grievances against the government’s cuts plans.

[edit]Perspectives

Economist Richard D. Wolff has stated that instead of cutting government programs and raising taxes, austerity should be attained by collecting from non-profit multinational corporations, churches, and private tax-exempt institutions such as universities, which currently pay no taxes at all.[40] Groups like UK Uncut and the campaigners for a Robin Hood tax argue for a “tax the banks” strategy that is similar, as well as to argue that the banks and corporations severely underpay the taxes they already owe, and need to stop tax-dodging.

There are also those like Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman, who argue that austerity measures tend to be counterproductive when applied to the populations and programs they are usually applied to.[41] This argument holds that austerity measures tend not to revitalize economies by ‘getting people off of benefits and back to work,’ and similar, but rather that austerity simply depresses economic growth wholesale, which ultimately causes governments to lose more money in tax revenues than they would have if they had not enacted the austerity and instead created jobs and new infrastructure and industries. In countries with already anemic economic growth, austerity can engender deflation which inflates existing debt. This can also cause the country to fall into a liquidity trap, causing credit markets to freeze up and unemployment to increase. Advocates of these positions point to cases in Ireland and Spain in which austerity measures instituted in response to financial crises in 2009 proved ineffective in combating public debt and the countries got in ever more dire financial straits as 2010 and 2011 progressed.[42]

[edit]References

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